ENKA was founded in 1957 as a partnership between Şarık Tara and his brother-in-law, the late Sadi Gülçelik, both civil engineers who graduated from Istanbul Technical University. At its inception, ENKA’s official name was, “Şarık Tara ve Sadi Gülçelik ENKA Limited Şirketi” and registered in Istanbul as a limited liability partnership.
The most significant projects in the early years were the construction of the Istinye Highway Bridge, the Unkapanı Flyover, the General Electric Motors Factory and the Haydarpaşa Grain Silos in Istanbul, the rubber tire plant in Adapazarı, the Siemens Cable Plant in Mudanya, the aluminum cable plant and the Goodyear rubber tire plant in İzmit, the Pimaş Plastic Factory and the Chrysler Truck Assembly Plant in Gebze and the Aksu Paper Mill in Giresun.
In 1967 following a period of rapid growth, the company’s limited liability partnership was transformed into a joint stock company, and the name was also altered to “ENKA İnşaat ve Sanayi Anonim Şirketi”.
At the beginning of 1970, ENKA was involved in 35 construction projects all running concurrently, ten of which were abroad. Contracts with foreign companies began to develop into joint ventures, first in Turkey, and then, internationally.
As a result of these strategic, cooperative business ventures with foreign firms, ENKA İnşaat ve Sanayi A.Ş., together with a German partner, was awarded an international tender for the first time to construct the Ortaköy Viaducts and approach roads of the Bosphorus Bridge in 1970. During the same year, ENKA commenced the construction of a cement plant at Benghazi in Libya.
The construction of various motorway tunnels on the Anatolian highway, such as the 660 m İzmit open tunnel, the 580 m Dilderesi and the 440 m Hereke twin tube tunnels soon followed.
It was also during the 1970s that ENKA broke ground with its first power plant projects, the Tunçbilek Thermal Power Plant and the Yatağan, Yeniköy and Kemerköy lignite-fired plants.
Other major projects within Turkey included such specialized construction as the coke furnaces, raw material preparation systems, rolling mill plant and blast furnace in the İskenderun Iron and Steel Works, Turkey’s largest industrial plant at that time.
In the ensuing years, various other construction projects were undertaken in cooperation with major German, Polish, Austrian, British, French, Jordanian and Japanese firms within Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Jordan and Iraq.
In the meantime, the ENKA Group decided to concentrate its operations in three principal fields: construction, fabrication and trade. The ENKA Export Import Company was founded in 1972. In response to the rapid expansion of its business volume, ENKA transformed its specialized departments into individual, self-standing companies with substantial investments made in their fields of expertise: Çimtaş was founded to continue the fabrication and erection of steel structures/elements; Titaş for earthworks and soil engineering, while Kasktaş took care of piling. In the early 1980s, ENKA expanded its activities in Iraq with the construction of the Tasluca and Kerbela Cement Plants and in Saudi Arabia with the Riyadh Water Transmission System, the Al Khafji Desalination Plant and the Medinah Housing Project. The Gerede to Ankara and Ankara peripheral motorway in Turkey, the Bekhme Dam in Iraq and the Ras Lanuf and Brega New Towns in Libya were ENKA’s first mega-scale projects. The other major project during this period was the 1,200 MW Hamitabat Natural gas-fired Combined Cycle Power Plant in Turkey.
By the end of 1980, ENKA İnşaat ve Sanayi A.Ş. was the 64th largest international contractor in the world, while the ENKA Export Import Company became the largest export trading house in Turkey.
Meanwhile, the ENKA Sports, Education and Culture Foundation was established, and the Sadi Gülçelik Sports Center was inaugurated in 1983.
In those years, the company also began to venture into refinery, petrochemicals and pipeline projects. ENKA, in collaboration with a Japanese partner, completed the Iraq-Turkey crude oil pipeline expansion project in 1984, increasing the pipeline’s capacity and delivering the pump stations together with all the related instrumentation. In 1986, ENKA partnered with a French company for the construction of the 842 km natural gas pipeline from the Bulgarian border of Turkey to Ankara, including the 118 km offshore pipeline in the Marmara Sea.
Following the foundation of the Istanbul Stock Exchange in 1986, ENKA shares were partly traded under the name of ENKA Holding Yatırım A.Ş., which, after its merger in 2002, became ENKA İnşaat ve Sanayi A.Ş.
1989 was the year of the Sirte Bay Hotel and Conference Center’s construction in Libya, completed in an incredible 180-day construction period, a record in high quality and timely delivery.
In 1988, ENKA undertook its first construction projects in Russia within the framework of the Turkish-U.S.S.R. Natural Gas Agreement. These projects included the restoration and renovation of the Petrovsky shopping arcade, a historic architectural landmark built in 1903 by the famous Russian architect Kalugin, and the turnkey construction project of a 1,000-bed hospital for World War II veterans, both located in Moscow.
These projects were followed by the landing of a contract for an even more eminent reconstruction and renovation project of the former Russian Parliament: the White House. The building was reconstructed and renovated within three months since it was needed as the new Government House. The State Duma Building, one of Moscow’s oldest landmarks, previously the Gosplan Headquarters, was also reconstructed and restored within three months.
ENKA’s reputation in Russia also led to contracts with foreign investors such as Masterfoods and Danone, who were impressed with ENKA’s impeccable record of world-class quality and its unmatched speed of execution.
By 1990, ENKA ranked among the top general contracting companies in the world. It offered a comprehensive range of services: from design and procurement to construction, fabrication, erection, operation, maintenance and management.
In 1991, ENKA took part in the “Housing Construction Program” in the Russian Federation, Belarus and Ukraine. Its objective was to provide housing for members of the former Soviet Army returning to their home countries from the former East German State following its reunification with West Germany.
Between 1991 and 1995, ENKA successfully completed seven projects within the internationally tendered program financed by the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (Kfw) on behalf of the German State. A key project here was the Borisow Military Housing Project in Belarus, the pioneering settlement of the above mentioned military housing program. A key requisite of this tender was the short timeframe required for completion, and accordingly, turnkey construction was accomplished within just 173 days. The total number of apartment units built by ENKA in this project, including the entire related technical and social infrastructure, numbered 5,970.
In 1993, ENKA and its joint venture partner Bechtel signed a series of contracts for a number of projects to develop the Tengiz Oil Field in western Kazakhstan. ENKA & Bechtel’s first contracts were awarded by Tengizchevroil (TCO) for projects relating to the improvement of the Tengiz Oil Field infrastructure.
These projects paved the way for major contracts to expand, upgrade and develop the Tengiz and the Korolev Oil Fields on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea. ENKA and its joint venture partner provided integrated engineering, construction, project management and procurement expertise for Tengizchevroil. During the execution of these enormous projects, more than 20 million man-hours were spent under live plant conditions, without any lost time accidents (LTA).
In the 1990s, various engineering and construction contracts were completed in the Russian Federation, including the building of hospitals, housing complexes, shopping malls, office buildings, industrial plants, and a significant number of other projects.
It was also during the 1990s that ENKA affirmed its willingness to make long-term investments in Russia. Two joint stock companies, Mosenka and Moskva Krasnye Holmy, were established in partnership with local organizations to develop and operate office buildings in Moscow. Mosenka was founded in 1991 with a mission to develop historical buildings that contributed to the splendor of Moscow and at the same time answered the growing demand for office space. Moskva Krasnye Holmy was established later, in 1995, for the implementation of the Riverside Towers Business and Cultural Center Project.
Following the completion of these buildings, the development of a more extensive project, the Paveletskaya Plaza Business Center consisting of three premium class office buildings, commenced with the 13-story Block A (completed in 1997), followed by the 13-story Block C (completed in 1998) and the 27-story Block B (completed in 2003), which consist of a total rentable floorspace of 60,000 m² and was operated by ENKA Invest. Paveletskaya Plaza, with its remarkable architecture, is widely regarded as a landmark in the Russian capital.
From 1995 onwards, ENKA began to extend its real estate portfolio in Moscow. The office buildings on SretENKA Avenue, the Tsvetnoy Palazzo, the Chapligina House, Riverside Towers and the Naberezhnaya Tower were all entirely developed by ENKA.
ENKA further extended its business lines in Russia with the foundation of RamENKA in 1997, an equal partnership of ENKA and Migros Türk A.Ş., to build and operate shopping centers and supermarket chains in the Russian Federation. In November of the same year, it launched its first Ramstore hypermarket and shopping center in the Kuntsevo district of Moscow, which was constructed by ENKA on a total area of 19,400 m². The company continued its growth and opened its second hypermarket and shopping center, Maryina Roshcha, despite the economic crisis in Russia in 1998. Adhering to high quality standards, ENKA completed the construction of the 32,500 m² Maryina Roshcha Shopping Center over a very short timeframe.
Between 1999 and 2003, 23 new stores were opened, increasing the number of stores to 25 and the number of shopping centers to six by the end of 2003. Regions outside Moscow soon saw the opening of stores at Krasnoyarsk, Kazan and Nizhiy Novgorod during the same year. Despite some closures between 2004 and 2007, the total number of stores increased to 53, and shopping centers to 10.
By purchasing the 50% share of Migros in 2007, ENKA became the sole owner of the company and consequently renamed it “ENKA TC”. In line with concentrating on rental as its primary line of business, it transferred the hypermarket operations at the Moscow and St. Petersburg shopping centers to Auchan through rental agreements. Upon completion of this operation, the leasable area of ENKA TC increased from 167,000 m² to 227,000 m².
Shopping malls owned by ENKA TC operated under the “Ramstore” brand name were rebranded as “Kapitoliy” in 2009. The supermarket brand name “Ramstore” was renamed “Citystore” as of January 2010.
Today, ENKA is both the developer and the owner of many prestigious projects in Moscow that feature Intelligent Building technologies with efficient layouts and interior premises fitted-out in accordance with international standards and automated engineering and safety control systems. It is also worth noting that ENKA, with professional teams located on-site, is carrying out the maintenance and administrative management of all these buildings. ENKA’s real estate investment projects have become the compelling choice for a great number of leading international and Russian companies.
In 1997, ENKA took an important step towards becoming an independent power producer in Turkey. Following a build-own-operate (BOO) tender, the InterGen-ENKA partnership was awarded the right to build, own and operate the Gebze Power Plant with a nominal capacity of 1,540 MW, the Adapazarı Power Plant with a nominal capacity of 770 MW and the İzmir Power Plant with a nominal capacity of 1,520 MW. An ENKA-Bechtel joint venture was the turnkey EPC contractor for all three projects.
After the mechanical completion, the Gebze and Adapazarı Plants were commissioned in 2002 and the İzmir Plant in 2003. Together with its partner, InterGen, ENKA has become the largest electricity producer in the Turkish private sector since the plant operations began. With the acquisition of InterGen’s shares, ENKA became sole owner of the electricity generation companies. ENKA currently generates 32,000 GWh of electricity per year, accounting for approximately 12% of The Turkish Republic’s annual production.
The Afşin Elbistan–B Thermal Power Plant, the U.S. Consulate Building in Istanbul, the Bregana-Zagreb-Dubrovnik Motorway in Croatia, the Transylvanian Motorway in Romania, the Caspian Sea Offshore Construction Works, the Rijnmond Energy Center in The Netherlands, a dam construction in Algeria and the Swissôtel Krasnye Holmy in Moscow, and various New U.S. Embassy Compounds were some of the key projects undertaken by ENKA in the early 2000s.
Other significant contracts undertaken by ENKA in the opening years of the same decade included the Philip Morris Cigarette Factory in St. Petersburg, the Sakhalin I and II oil and natural gas processing units in Russia, the Sheremetyevo Airport Terminal 3 Project in Moscow, and the water treatment plant in Algeria.
From 2006 onwards, distinguished contracts awarded to ENKA were for the 5-star Hyatt Regency Hotel and the Business Center in Dushanbe, Tajikistan; the Shakhtar Donetsk Football Stadium project with a 51,500-spectator capacity in Ukraine; the Rreshen-Kalimash Motorway in Albania; the administrative-office block on Khoroshevskoye Highway in Moscow; the U.S. consular buildings in Sarajevo, Djibouti and Burundi; the 418 MWe Power Plant in Yajva, Russia; the Morine-Merdare Motorway in Kosovo; the Lapino Perinatal Hospital in Moscow; the U.S. embassy buildings in Equatorial Guinea, the Dominican Republic, Afghanistan and Papua New Guinea; the Muscat International Airport Main Terminal in Oman; and the MEI Early Production Facility in Majnoon Oil Field in Iraq.
In 2011, ENKA won the contract for the construction of the West Qurna-2, EPC Electrical Power Generation Plant for Lukoil. It was the first GTPP project in ENKA’s history where ENKA acted as the sole EPC Contractor in oil, gas and petrochemicals.
In the ensuing years, ENKA gained contracts for the execution of mechanical and electrical installation works of the Khabarovsk Refinery in Russia; the conversion of three existing simple cycle power plants into a combined cycle in Erbil, Sulaymaniyah and Duhok in Iraq; the construction of Prishtine–Hani i Elezit (Route No:6) Motorway in Kosovo.
In 2015, ENKA completed its works on the Erbil Combined Cycle Power Plant Project, which became the first synchronized combined cycle power plant in Iraq.
In the same year, ENKA started the construction of a gas-fired combined cycle power plant with a 1,500 MW capacity, to provide electricity and to ensure security of the power supply in Baghdad.
Finally, following its successful project execution in Iraq, in July 2015, ENKA gained the EPCC contract for a processing facility in the West Qurna-1 oilfield with a 100,000-barrels a day capacity.
Records show that, thus far, ENKA has completed 121 projects in Turkey amounting to a contract value of 7 billion US dollars, and another 371 projects with a contract value of 34 billion US dollars have been awarded to ENKA in foreign countries. Delivering such large-scale projects on time while achieving the highest quality standards has always been crucial to ENKA’s success.
With access to a human resource pool of over 40,000 construction personnel, and a construction equipment and machinery park consisting of over 3,000 pieces, ENKA is able to mobilize rapidly anywhere on the world map, to immediately provide the highest quality services.
Headquartered in Istanbul, Turkey, ENKA continues to achieve a lasting legacy as one of the most highly valued and trusted brands of Turkey.